The New Trust.

Could it be that digital solutions to everyday activities are making us a more trusting society? In this era of paranoia of big business and big government, rampant nonsense news, usurping of reality by the ebb and flow of opinion, is there goodness? Wholesome, warmth towards our fellow strangers?

I believe so.

Let’s do a few flashbacks to see how easily we accept today what we strictly controlled in the past. Consider:

Now Then
Purchasing stuff from a store Self Check Out. No one pays attention as I scan 45 items and place them in the bags I brought into the store myself and have pushed around in my cart for the last 45 minutes. Cashier can’t remember what green leafy stuff is. Calls for price check. People in the line behind you glare. Bags brought into the store subject to search, or elaborate tagging and stapling routine to ensure nothing could be added to said bags.
Purchasing stuff online We do it. We deal with vendors we’ve never heard of before. Put our credit card numbers into sites that weren’t there yesterday. Correspond with anonymous posters of used items or go meet them in vacant apartments. Pundits poo-pooed the idea that anyone would buy goods from an organization they’d never heard of. Amazon would never sell more than books because people wanted to see what they were buying. Early eBay was intimidating to many.
Cashing cheques/transferring fund If someone emails us money, we decide where and when it goes. We choose the bank account where it’s deposited. Scrutiny. Showing of ID, comparing of signatures, spelling of the name. Cheques rejected for date infractions, use of coloured ink. Banks closed at 3pm, funds held, frowns shared.
Paying bills At some time in the distant past, you knew your account number. So now you can pay the bill. Any amount you want. Paper bill required. Bottom half confiscated by bank. Top half stamped, initialed and annotated.
Transit fares Scan your pass, buy your ticket at a kiosk or online. Prepare for spot checks. Buy ticket at wicket. Show attendance when boarding bus/train. Lose transfer and have to pay double fare. Show attendant on leaving transit system or pay double fare.
Health Benefit Claims Go to the dentist, pharmacist, physiotherapist. Submit online for reimbursement of costs. Have reimbursement immediately deposited to bank account. Click ‘Agree’ to terms and condition to produce proof of payment if requested. Fill out forms. Attach receipts. Put in paper mail. Wait weeks. Wait months. Get response that indicates you failed to sign form. Start all over again. Get denied reimbursement because time limit has expired.

Some of you have never experienced what’s in the ‘Then’ column. Lucky you.

While much of what’s in the ‘Now’ column adds efficiency and convenience, it also suggests a level of trust that wasn’t there then. People don’t have to prove who they are, or that they’ve bought tickets, been to the dentist, have an account with the gas company, or purchased one bunch of broccoli rather than two. Reciprocally, we’ve learned that most vendors are honest, want to deliver goods to us and really own the electronics they’re selling.

Am I being naive? Or does new technology merely replace all the previous checks and balances provided by the seemingly draconian humans at the bank, insurance company or checkout cash? Perhaps emailing money is so fool-proof no one ever makes an error or commits fraud.

Someone’s probably done the math. The added efficiency of not collecting everyone’s proof of payment out-weighs the number of people who cheat the system. That’s kinda cool in itself. Gives me a warm fuzzy about humans – for the most part, we’re okay.

I’d like to believe we’re evolving into a more trusting society at an individual level. It feels good to be trusted and included, even if it’s by an algorithm or encryption key.

Please follow and like us:

Haptics. Or, Things We Don’t Know We Need Yet.

I just got an iPhone 7. Pretty impressed. It’s like a purring kitten in the palm of my hand. From what I read, I’m not the only one liking the haptics, or physical buzzing and shaking it performs with routine actions, like scrolling through menus or changing settings. A pleasant surprise.

 

Got me thinking about all the technology that’s crazy-sounding when it’s introduced and broadly embraced some time later. Here’s a few examples that popped into my head:

  • an electronic replacement for the yellow pages. And encyclopedias. And maps. Used to be if you needed to find something you got a big book and looked it up. Now we google.
  • one device that holds a thousand or more books in less space then a paperback.
  • the ability to instantly share everything we are doing with literally everyone in the world, via text, photo, or video. (I suspect hologram and virtual attendance are coming.)
  • the ability to pass judgement on all that everyone in the world shares. (Can you imagine a world without ‘like’ buttons?)
  • getting your DNA sequenced, because you can.

I tell my students that a successful business model satisfies an unmet need. Therefore, every new thing that’s adopted into everyday lives satisfies a need in a novel way. Often it’s convenience (electronic yellow pages and electronic reader), or being social (social media), or a quest for knowledge (DNA sequencing).

Another perspective: this article suggests that technology developers, in particular phone, app and social media developers, introduce new features that try to take advantage of users. Through manipulating basic emotions such as anxiety and loneliness, people may be addicted to their communication devices. We feed on the responses to our posts, mainlining the likes, sharing, and other general good vibes. There’s even science that suggests notification systems elicit a basic stress response if not answered.

I get it. The tone of a text message literally makes me jump. I have to assume it’s a survival reaction to new information in my environment: my instincts insist I assess it for fear it will devour me if I don’t. (Because test messages have been know to do that.) Funny thing is, I don’t recall such an urgent reaction to a ringing phone back in the day of landlines. Without caller I.D. or voicemail, if a call was missed, you had no idea who was calling about what. We managed to continue living, assuming if it was important, they’d call back.

Have we been conditioned to over-react to our electronic notifications?

A stated business goal for many device or app developers is improved user experience. This could be code for holding your attention longer. Considering that many social media sites make money from advertising, and the fee to advertisers is higher the more eyeballs are on the site, there is some logic to why companies want users to spend more time on their sites. How does increased convenience, which presumably relates to less time spend doing something, fit into this scheme.

Back to my iPhone. Some of the rationale1 for the haptics is to simulate the feel of pushing a button (electronic buttons1 have reacted that way since forever, so pushing buttons must be very important to people2). Eliminating push buttons is good for manufacturers because it makes for fewer moving parts, allowing a more reliable device as moving parts are harder to fix with a software update. The haptics made the earphone jack go away (space thing), which has the benefit of allowing less dust into the guts of the phone. The haptic functionality is open to third party developers who can dream up as many different uses for a wiggly phone as their imagination will allow – so there’s all kinds of new needs we don’t know we have to be satisfied.

When my shiny new phone first purred in my hand, I thought of artificial intelligence. Could this be some far-sighted approach to prepare us to accept machines as interacting members of the household, or society?

In this description of Apple’s haptic technology we learn that the devices are engineered to deliver signals to our fingers by sending misleading messages that mimic the push of a button. The technology uses knowledge of how our brains interpret forces directed onto our fingertips to simulate the button-pushing-feel. This is revolutionary. The visual and tactile are together, like they are in the real world, which makes what happens on my phone more real that ever before. Another reason not to put it down.

Haptics are currently used to give a more life-like experience to video games and to training simulation where touching a real thing is less than desirable, such as medical procedures and handling of dangerous substances3. I’m curious to find out what far flung way haptics will be a vital part of everyday life 10 years from now.

I’m so excited about this new technology, I’ve glossed over where I started with this post. Why do developers introduce new products and features that we don’t know we need or want, but can’t live without a little while later: A sinister plot to take advantage of our primordial urges and to get us to buy more stuff? Or visionary anticipation of the benefits of new technology?

Maybe I’ll ask Siri.

———-

1 Tapping a button, whether on a touch screen or through a cursor delivered click, makes the button do a flashy thing, which simulates a push of the button. Other surrogate reactions are noises.

2 The desire to push buttons stumps me from an evolutionary perspective. I’ve seen explanations related to curiosity and being in control, and testing rules but am not satisfied.

3 For example, when learning to handle radioactive waste or do open heart surgery.

Please follow and like us:

Legal Persons.

Sounds awkward.
Is awkward, potentially.
The European parliament is apparently considering declaring robots with AI legal persons1.
Thinking my way around this.

Corporations were declared legal persons generations ago.
According to Wikipedia, in 1886.
Yet we still have problems with the concept.
Making the engines of capitalism into legal persons may be the root of the ‘them’ in us.

The documentary, The Corporation, suggests that the difference between corporate ‘legal persons’ and the rest of us is that corporations have no moral or ethical conscious. They have rights but fewer obligations. To me, this ought to be yin and yang. If you have the right to something (like say a drivers license), you have the obligation to control it (and drive carefully).

As most things do, the state of being a corporation started innocently enough. A bunch of individuals got together and directed their interests (social, financial and/or personal) to a joint cause. When the cause got big enough, it took on a life (not a casual use of the word) of its own. It needed to be a separate entity, legally as well as autonomously. Since a collective decided what it would do, no one person was responsible, but the entity needed to be liable for its actions.

Controversy has arisen with modern corporations. Some have polluted our environment. Others taken advantage of people in developing nations for cheap labour. More recently, corporate support of political agendas2 calls into question the justice of a powerful, but unemotional entity, influencing human activities. The profit agenda of corporations is seen as their over-riding motivation, devoid of compassion.

Starting to sound scarily like artificial intelligence? Powerful. Devoid of human emotion. Mission driven.

Before we go there, consider another aspect of legal personhood. Various governments have recently declared various animals as legal persons3. Making animals legal persons protects them from acts of violence and neglect. Previously, because animals were considered possessions, they could be treated in any way their owner saw fit. Our modern sensibilities want more humane treatment, so animals have become legal persons in some countries. This allows third parties to step in and defend them, if necessary.

And let’s not forget that there were times in history when various people didn’t have the same status as others. Not so long ago women were ‘allowed’ to own property and vote (rights of ‘personhood’). Throughout human history, various groups have been ‘freed’ from slavery by other groups (from Roman times to more recently), granting the freed rights of personhood.

Granting basic rights like protection from harm and freedom to chose to those who are deserving is a good thing. But dodging responsibility in the name of adhering to a mission like maximizing profits doesn’t seem right.

What of the personhood of AI’s? Will it protect them from harm or allow them to game the system?

The arguments before European parliament to declare AI’s legal persons are motivated by giving them responsibility. No one holds the wind responsible for felling a tree and crushing a car. We call that a natural disaster. However, if an AI miscalculates GPS coordinates and sends a lifesaving package to the wrong province, we do want to hold someone responsible, whether it’s the programmers, owners or contractors of the AI. This was part of the original philosophy of making corporations legal persons. If the outcome of their actions required someone taking responsibility, it should be the collective that directs the thing.

Back to AI. Yes, we want some kind of accountability for what AI’s can do. After all, we don’t expect a herd of random robots running around without reason. Someone will deploy them and give them an assignment. And if that assignment runs amok and does some kind of damage, whoever sent the AIs should be responsible, even if it’s a corporate legal person.

Do AI’s need protection? I can imagine a day, a few decades from now, when people will feel protective about some AI’s and concerned when other AI’s are not treated well. Maybe the AI’s are left out in the rain, or aren’t consulted about best practices in machine lubrication.

Many people fear AI’s. They see a day when the power of the AI could subvert us or turn off our life support for good, because we are purposeless. They might have the right to do so if they are legal persons. And decided we were less than legal persons.

I have great faith in humans to manage our creations and ensure our survival, but also to treat those around us properly. Sometimes, it takes a while to figure out what that is. Ask a woman or a minority group. We can be slow arriving at justice. Maybe an AI could help us with that.

1 Reported in this CBC article.

2 http://www.npr.org/2014/07/28/335288388/when-did-companies-become-people-excavating-the-legal-evolution

3 For a completely less than comprehensive look, here‘s a blog post I did.

Please follow and like us:

Software Updates: A User’s Perspective

It time for another humorous, if somewhat pointed, look at modern technology, specifically software updates and the (mixed) messages that come with them.

Take for example:

This software update will fix a few security issues.

What it seems to mean:

  • The update will break all my preset passwords, requiring re-input into ‘settings’.

But, I don’t know all my preset passwords. Either I dig into that secure location where I keep the paper record of the passwords (although I’d don’t have such a thing because it’s a giant security risk), or request password resets, which requires changing the same password on six other devices. Where I can’t remember how to find the setting because…

We’re changed our look.

What it seems to mean:

  • Everything on the website/app looks completely unfamiliar. I’m disoriented.
  • If the background was white, now it’s navy blue. The rounded font now is square. The logo is different so I’m not even sure if I have an account, which doesn’t matter because the last security patch erased my password.
  • I can’t finding things by their location on the screen, because that’s changed too. The menu has moved from the right sidebar to three lines disguised as a decorative doodad at the top of the page.
  • The marketing team must have decided to rename all the critical functions, so looking for functions by name is pointless.
  • Shutting down is impossible? The capability has been removed. Who’d want to stop using this brilliant software, anyway?
  • There’s new functionality, preset to the most intrusive level, so that I suddenly have strange icons clogging my screen when I’m trying to call a critically important client with information they wanted five minutes ago.

All this because…

The software (operating system, word processing, presentation software) is licensed to you free of charge.

What it seems to mean:

  • The software developer is in command but assures me I’m a valuable customer.
  • I’m inundated with ‘update your software’ messages. A screen pops up while I’m in the middle of doing something I’ve chosen to, like email my ailing mother, text my member of parliament about internet privacy concerns, or read my son’s report card.

All I have to do to use my free software, on my device, is continually dismiss messages from the software developer. I don’t update because I’m afraid I’ll need a bunch of time to reload my passwords and figure out where all the options are …see above.

Don’t get me wrong, I’m glad software is updated all the time, otherwise we might be stuck with that annoying paperclip of advice, have our identities stolen, or be able to brew a pot of tea between page loads. Ever advancing software functionality has changed everything over the years in wonderful ways. Embedded video. Autofilled fields. Hyperlinks to automatically put events in your calendar or phone the new restaurant that delivers to your house at the touch of a screen.

Why am I complaining? Humans hate change. C’mon, even those of us who are addicted to change actually hate change if it messes with our routines. Routines make life simple. I don’t want to have to think about where to find the menu on my favourite website because I have better things to do. Like vote on a new logo for my favourite coffee shop.

It’s like old slippers: comfy, cosy, threadbare, faded with a sole that flops around, half unglued. If anyone has the nerve to replace them with a sleek new pair, complete with ultra comfortable memory foam insoles, I’m not happy. Not because the new slippers aren’t nice, have additional features and the old ones were about to disintegrate, but because my brain has to adjust.

Perhaps the answer is software updates so frequent and subtle that we never consciously notice the continuous, small changes. On that point, what did I notice, just yesterday, but a certain browser advertising its features, including continuous updates. If the approach to updates is a marketing point, I’m not the only one who finds the current, prevalent process aggravating.

That’s the miracle of software: if you don’t like the way something works, give it a few months and it will likely change. The update is coming.

Please follow and like us:

Abandoning Science Fiction. Embracing Science Fiction.

Traditionally, science fiction imagined the impacts of emerging technology decades and centuries into the future, suggesting fanciful, outrageous possibilities. These were generally ignored as figments of, well, science fiction.

No more. Lots of people are paying attention to science fiction. We can’t dismiss the potential of technology as surreal anymore. It’s real, as real as your online medical history, or app-controlled crockpot.

Science fiction has snuck into, and taken a starring role in, mainstream entertainment: Starwars, Game of Thrones, Dr. Who, and countless other movies and TV shows. Best books of 2016 include science fiction and fantasy titles. While some might debate the purity of this popular scifi, a heightened awareness of technology permeates popular culture, perhaps as a collective intuition of the urgency to understand what’s coming.

In classic titles like 1984 (information technology), Brave New World (human engineering), and Blade Runner (artificial intelligence), science fiction explored the frontiers of advancing technology. The time has past for the implications of emerging technologies be left to the philosophers in their ivory towers or visionaries in their chrome think tanks. Jaw-dropping new technology barrels towards us like a runaway locomotive, and threatens to overwhelm us like deer in the headlights.

My mission is to make science and technology accessible. In 2004, I took up writing scifi to help people understand science, both how it worked and its potential outcomes. By mid 2015, it seemed to me the field of scifi had undergone a tectonic shift. Currently popular stories seems less to hypothesize the impacts and ethics of emerging technologies than to explore human nature. All good, but not my fundamental driving force.

I took another path, focused on another passion – using business strategy to turn scientific developments into useful products for people1. Ironically, this is now a better place to achieve my goal to bring science to people. We are poised on the edge of many technological advances with the potential to change life as we know it, probably sometime next week, or year. Definitely now-ish.

At one of my recent business meetings, the light, closing banter considered whether bitcoin would become a solid currency. Bitcoin, or entirely digital currency, is an attractive concept, as a global, non-political, apparently secure2 and completely portable form of money. Many commentators expect it to disrupt banking as we know it. Not science fiction. Business.

I credit the book (from the business section of the bookstore) ‘Industries of the Future’ by Alec Ross3 with coalescing my thoughts about science fiction. In this book, the list of emerging technologies was no surprise and included self driving cars, the Internet of Things, big data and the associated privacy or lack thereof, genetic profiles, and cyberwarfare. Ross’ genius is coupling the astonishing capability of the technology with current uses and impacts.

Technology is becoming mainstream faster than it can become science fiction.

Today you can place your order as you walk towards your favourite coffee shop, pay for it before you open the door and whizz by the barista as you grab the cuppa with your name on it. Tomorrow, someone could hack your fridge to steal your identity or you might never find another job once your genetic profile has been uploaded into Monster.

No more is 19844 fiction. Fifty years ago, although horrified by the notion of being monitored constantly, we stood back and debated whether it would ever really happen. No more debate – the capacity exists. Now. Most of us are fortunate that such intel is not used against us. It’s only used to sell us things.

Issac Asimov wrote about robots5. While countless manufacturing jobs have been lost to automation, the real question is: how far it will go? Will robots replace teachers, lawyers, doctors, or spouses? This is about more than lost jobs, it’s about what it is to be human.

GATTACA6 (1997) was a movie about a young man who wanted to be an astronaut, but it wasn’t in his DNA, literally. The movie’s premise is that people’s occupations are determined by genetic profiling. In GATTACA, our hero fakes his genetic makeup to live his dream. Genetic profiling is close enough to reality that the Canadian government is working on genetic privacy legislation, while businesses that provide health insurance want to use genetic information to determine policy premiums.

Cory Doctorow, in Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom7, wrote about a system called Whuffie. The basic concept was that a score like karma, based on how many good things you did and how many people liked you, followed you around and determined your fate. How different is this from celebrity influencers on social media, who might have a more pervasive impact on medical products that knowledgeable medical professionals?

Countless scifi stories show people being identified by their fingerprints or retinal scan. How close is this to reality? Ask Bionym, a Canadian company that authenticates identity by heartbeat8.

Artificial intelligence is coming. In the classic scifi tale, 2001 Space Odyssey,9 an evil computer took over a spaceship because a human tried to shut it down. Watson, IBM’s super computer, knows more about medical advances10 than any of our physicians possibly could, and it won on Jeopardy!11 Meanwhile, Google can predict pancreatic cancer more efficiently than medical tests12, and Twitter can divine which movies will be hits before the box office opens to sell the first ticket to a showing13.

Business brings us new technology, whether we are ready or not. Realizing the potential consequences can’t be left to science fiction. We need to understand all the ethical, secondary and broader environment effects in real time, when the technology is in its infancy or sooner. Simultaneously, science fiction has moved on to deal with some of the most challenging social issues this world currently faces.

To understand technology, I abandon science fiction for business, but I embrace science fiction for wisdom to understand people.

——–

1I consider this the fundamental interconnectedness of all things, and of course credit Douglas Adams with bestowing on me an understanding of the universe.

2The experts claim that digital currencies are unhackable, but that just sounds to me like a giant invitational to hackers.

4The book by George Orwell, written in 1949.

Please follow and like us:

Evolving with Technology, or Is Fresh Air Good for You?

The perfect house: energy efficient, climate-controlled, with sweet filtered air inside. Want one? I don’t. To me, healthy living means opening a window to change the temperature in the house and rejoice in what the environment presents1.

I’m an environmental pig, living in a house designed over a century ago, lacking in the latest energy efficient technology. Instead, I have trees. Trees that shade my home and prevent the sun from beating extra kilojoules of energy, as heat, into my rooms. I have primitive geothermal cooling – an unfinished basement that breathes coolness into my main floor. My grandmother had something called a ‘root cellar’. A root cellar is on the cool side of the house (NE), in an area of the basement surrounded on four of its six sides by earth (top, bottom, north and east walls), and provides sufficient refridgeration to preserve carrots, potatoes and turnips.

Today’s ultimate ergonomic home, controlled with energy saving algorithms, has constant temperature regulation, purified air, and is tightly sealed from the outdoors. This provides cost effective heating and cooling2, and optimum air flow to prevent the growth of moulds and the like, with filters to cleanse contaminant particles from the air.

treesSounds great, but I don’t like it. Imagine instead opening a window to the heavenly smell of a summer rain, or when the roses are in bloom, or if the grass has just been cut. Wake in the morning to the sounds of the birds peeping and trilling through your open windows. Feel the caress of a breeze, floating in with the rhythimic chirp of the crickets on a hot summer night. Man, it’s good.

Which is better: the ecological, economical, sealed house, separating us from the nasty environment bent on messing with our equilibrium, or fresh air? Long ago, doctors prescribed fresh air to cure all kinds of ailments, obtained by sitting seaside as ocean gales hurled past. Today, we have polluted air and climate change that superheats and supercools our environment. We also seem to have heighened levels of environmental sensitivity, making many of us retreat into our climate-controlled isolation units.

I think there’s an instinctive attraction to fresh air, perhaps the converse of our repulsion for things that smell of bacteria, yeast or other microorganisms associated with death, disease and decay. When we smell clean water, or air scented with healthy growing things, we know there’s sustaining substances for us. The reek of animal waste makes us recoil, which is surely a good survival instinct, allowing us to avoid traipsing into the bear’s or lion’s den.

Ancient history? Do our instincts lag behind what’s useful in the modern world? I went looking to see if fresh air is still good for us. The first web search turned up organizations confirming fresh air was good for the soul. It cleanses, reduces stress, improves digestion, boosts the immune system and a number of general statements of limited substance. People believe that fresh air is good for us, perhaps based on how good it feels, but how about proof?

Science, where are you? Science says there are benefits to feeling as good as fresh air can make us feel. Fair enough.

One interesting study3 measured ventillation in 28 grade schools in California and compared it to sick days taken by students. It found the higher the rate of removal of CO2, the fewer sick days. This cleansing of the air, associated with less illness, was higher in classrooms with open windows than air conditioning. But that might just mean that traditional air conditioning isn’t very good at air exchange.

What is fresh air, exactly? Anyone who’s familiar with farm country, a bastion of wholesomeness, knows it often smells unpleasantly of manure. Different people might define fresh air as air that’s:

  • scented with pleasant things, like apple pie, or the sea,
  • has less CO2 and more O2,
  • low in irritants, or infectious agents, or
  • a comfortable temperature.

Googling ‘allergen free air’ is amusing. The first nine hits are businesses offering sources of air treatment, and the last one is for chimney cleaning4.

On Google Scholar, I found specific, detailed studies, such as:

  • dust-free pillow covers reduce allergic symptoms in a group of 30 kids,
  • Hepa filters decreased cat dander but did nothing for asthma symptoms in a handful of people,
  • fungus is higher inside than out in the winter in the US midwest.

This, of course, is the point. Science is very specific because sometimes it matters very much if you take one acetaminophen capsule today or one acetaminophen capsule per day, so we shouldn’t expect it to provide pronouncements on something as general as fresh air.

The US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) defines six things5 as hazardous to human health in air (at sufficient concentrations), all based on full arsenals of scientific research. Some of these harmful things are not smellable when you open the window after a summer rain. But I can’t accept that it’s better for people to stay inside a sealed building, even if it has perfect air quality.

Are my instincts betraying me, telling me outside is good? Are they antiquated notions, left over from a time when there was no pollution, climate change or crazy, invisible things in the environment that could harm me?

If my fresh air instincts give me a survival advantage, turning my yearning to spend time outside to increased health and longevity, then they are good instincts. But if those who stay inside are better off, don’t contract as many diseases because they are protected by their controlled environment, then my instincts will fade from the human repetoire. My line will die out while the earth is populated by the people who stay inside.

I don’t know the answer to who will win this evolutionary battle of survival strategies and it will take centuries or longer before anyone knows. The question is whether they will be living in a sealed, plastic dome or in the forest alongside the deer, mushrooms, and snails.

——

1 At least for half of the year, not when central heating is doing it’s best to keep the indoor temperature above 65oF/18oC, then I’m all about man-made heat.

2 I am told that it’s most efficient to control the temperature 7×24, rather than adjust it at will, as keeping the temperature constant is less energy intensive than sudden changes.

3 Mendell, M. J., Eliseeva, E. A., Davies, M. M., Spears, M., Lobscheid, A., Fisk, W. J., Apte, M. G. (2103) Association of classroom ventilation with reduced illness absence: a prospective study in California elementary schools. Indoor Air v23(6) doi10.1111/ina.12042 retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ina.12042/abstract

4 Probably because I have a wood burning fireplace and was looking for someone to clean it recently, but an admirable example of how sweet the smell of something (burning hardwood) can be but how unsure I am that it’s healthy

Please follow and like us:

What if your Doctor was an AI? Part 2

Imagine what it might be like to visit your doctor in the future, if your family doctor was an AI.

The first thing I realize is I don’t have to go anywhere. The AI can talk to me online. Cool. Humm. Will it mind if I’m still in my pyjamas? I wouldn’t want it to think I’m depressed, so perhaps I’ll find some clothes.

Come to think of it, I don’t need to book a visit. If the doctor is online and can run multiple sessions simultaneously, I don’t need an appointment, I can just login. After I get dressed.

No waiting and no waiting room is really cool. In real life, I feel bad for fellow patients who are sniffling and sneezing, but don’t need to share their bugs. Nor do I want to give anyone else my infestation, which for the sake of this exercise is some kind of respiratory thing that won’t go away.

I sit down in front of my computer screen and wait for Dr. AI to appear, after logging into my account that has all of my medical history available for the doctor. It probably has analysis of all of my social media posts, search queries, and everything other bit of information that can be gleaned from the Internet of Things, like what I bought at the grocery store, meals out, number of steps taken and activity log obtained from the appliances in my house and clothes that monitor what I do on a minute-by-minute basis.

I feel a little nervous as I wait for the session to initialize. I’ve always felt a little nervous visiting the doctor, sort of the same vague unease most people feel when a police cruiser appears in their rear-view mirror. Significantly, this is the same feeling I get when I see my human doctor. Slightly apprehensive that something really serious could be wrong with me, or that I’ll be called out for some unhealthy practice. We all have them. Things we love but know aren’t good for us. French fries. Cake. Lounging on the couch instead of going to fitness class.

Dr. AI appears. Probably not on screen because that will be so early 21st century technology. Some embodiment of a human-like avatar in a lab coat materializes in my augmented visual range. In the near future, I think AI’s will maintain a plasticy look, clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, because that’s what we’ll be comfortable with.

Dr. AI appears to greet me: “Hello, [different tone of voice] Ms. [another tone of voice] Dulhanty. May I call you Ann?”

“Sure. But it’s Dr.”

“At your service.” It bows slightly.

I’m not convinced I’ve gotten my message across, which is my title is Dr. not Ms., but since it isn’t important, I don’t push it. That is rather like talking to a human.

Dr. AI sails on. “Your vitals suggest … Do you feel feverish? Been to a farm or agricultural depot recently?”

“No. ”

“Your genotype suggests a family history of …”

“Do I need a vaccination against the new virus they’ve found in Milwaukee?”

“No.”

“Why?”

“Not called for in your case.”

This is exactly like talking to a human who has too many things to do. I go to the preferences on my healthcare interface and adjust them.

Dr. AI says “Ok. Redirecting.” Then smiles reassuringly. “Why didn’t you say so.” And details the pathology of new virus, risk factors associated with infection, epidemiological data, and toxicology, along side relevant information about me and those in my household, from genetics to how many tissues I used yesterday (cached in my browser).

I dabble at the information over the rest of the afternoon, follow a number of links to various opinions on the interpretations of the data. When I have questions, at 3:16 pm, 5:01 and after dinner, Dr. AI cheerfully chimes in with answers. Another cool thing: medical advice on my clock, not jammed into a 15 minute session.

By the next morning I’m not satisfied. There’s a shadow of a doubt in my mind, so I message Dr. AI, having realized that I can communicate with my physician in real time, at my discretion, like I would any service provider. “I’d rather have the shot. There are few risks, so better to have it.”

Dr. AI answers, “Of course, I’ll write the prescription. Your medical insurance is set to the appropriate level of discretionary care.”

A small drone appears outside my house 7 minutes later. As I extend my arm to open the door to find out what it’s delivering, it whirs in and I feel a slight prick in my upper arm. My mobile blips with a message about the possible side effects of the vaccine administered.

Fifteen minutes later, Dr. AI appears in avatar. “All your vitals are normal – no acute reaction detected.” He snaps a folder icon closed. “I’ll monitor your feeds tomorrow for latent effects, and will only contact you if there is reason for concern. Good night.”

Wow. Now that’s service1.

1Not to say I am complaining about the service provided me currently by my family doctor or any other health professional. Ok, I kinda am, but blame the constraints they are under in the healthcare system in Ontario, not their intentions.

Please follow and like us:

What if your Doctor was an AI?

This year’s MedEdge Summit. York Region – MedTech conference was affirming. Inspiring in a creative kind of way, rather than the eye-opening, mind-numbing advances in technology that make you think you’ve been hiding in a foxhole with a metal bowl on your head for the past 70 years. We’re on the right track with our crazy, cutting-edge technology to doing something useful. Things are falling into place, in a crooked, bottom of a kaleidoscope pattern.

Ok, there was still some wild stuff discussed, like patients being in charge of their own medical data and sequencing an entire human genome in a few days. Those are the beginning of approaches that I think will turn out well in the long term.

Today, even if we’re presented with our entire genomic sequence on a silver tray, no one knows what most of it means. But we will some day. Until then, we’ll keep doing those studies that give us a bit more evidence what the sequence of 11q21.3 means if you have green eyes and are good at cricket.

Right now, having people control their own medical records is like giving a four year old the keys to the car. Most of us don’t have the training to understand the data we’re presented with. As a small segue, when I was 15, I found my medical file open on a desk. A nurse chided me for reading it. I looked at her in wonder, ‘but, it’s about me.’ She snapped the file shut. In retrospect, we were both right. She took it away because it was written in a language that would confuse or misguide most people, so it wouldn’t be to the patient’s benefit to see it. But, information about me should be my property. That’s seems to be how modern privacy laws are playing out.

Let’s get to the exciting stuff: artificial intelligence. I can see it being useful in medicine because AI could provide the kind of assistance only AI is capable of. An enormous number of researchers are learning new things about human health all the time. Expecting your friendly family doctor to read 100’s of papers a day, while he or she works full time meeting with patients, assessing their conditions and suggesting a growing number of preventative approaches, is just crazy. They are only human.

Enter Artificial Intelligence. It’s particularly good at assimilating vast quantities of information that arrive over long periods of time. It doesn’t need to wrack its brain to put together one study published in South Africa in 2009 with another one from Sweden in 2016 to collect information about a rare disease. That’s easy-peasy for AI and the basis of how we learn about human health. Dozens of separate studies, done in different ways, by different people, come together to lead us to new knowledge. Rarely does one report change medical practice. AI also can provide us with the benefits of analyzing the activities of billions of people. Rumour1 has it that Microsoft was able to find common symptoms that people searched on before they were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. AI can provide an up-to-the-microsecond summation of all that’s relevant to a patient’s condition.

Great, as far as it goes. But it stops at the sum of all human knowledge and behaviour. Could AI possibly deal with uncertainty and lack of answers better than the current, malpractice-avoidance approaches? AI probably isn’t capable of caring or being sympathetic. In my experiences, this has been all but beat out of the current medical system, with quotas to deliver, expectations to manage, and routinized care. I long for the time when the doctor put the chart down, smiled and said, ‘you’ll be fine. It’s just a bug/growing pains/aging/over exertion/gas/random. Come back and see me in a week if it isn’t better.’

How is AI going to provide us with common sense, perspective, or talk us down from the fear we are dying of an incurable but totally improbably disease? Maybe it can. To my way of thinking, many of the situations where patients need to be told things are ok are based on the natural variability of the human body. Guidelines usually have a range for things like blood pressure, heart rate, levels of cholesterol and more. What does it mean when someone is outside the normal range? More tests can be done for explanations that might be pathological. When those turn up negative, the physician is left with no explanation and the possibility of natural variation. The doctor may have a hard time saying so, just in case there’s something going on. AI could at least quantify the answer with something like ‘there’s only a one in 500 chance of this’, or ‘a one in 248 chance of that’.

How will AI deal with situations when patients need to be consoled? We all die eventually and at some point many of us will need to be told we have a terminal or very serious condition. Will AI develop algorithms to read a person’s expressions and body language so it can tailor its delivery to each patient, or will it defer to its human equivalent? Let the doctor do what may have attracted them to medicine in the first place – care for their patients.

Please follow and like us:

Privacy. Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself. And Third Party Use of Data.

‘What do we fear could happen if we put our personal information online?’ A question I came across while researching internet privacy. Simple but brilliant, because the answer didn’t come easily to me. Like washing my hands before meals, I do it, but why?

Should I be concerned that I’ve made numerous posts on Facebook about my love of beer, my Twitter account reflects an interest in rock music, and how these leisure activities align with the professional profile I try to maintain on LinkedIn?

If I ran for Prime Minister, which I wouldn’t, what might someone turn up to incriminate me? Not that I’ve done anything terrible. That’s the thing. Fear may be rooted in how some mundane piece of information could be spun. With a little information, say that I’m an avid poker player, what horrible portrait could be drawn of me – the gambling addiction? Or my fascination with guns. (I played paint-ball war games once in 1986.)

We all have our hobbies. Many people fear that their, ahem, socially-shared, social interactions (i.e.. partying) will be frowned upon by future employers. Stories of job interviews ending in a request for Facebook passwords still float around, despite the clear invasion of privacy. Snapchat, with posts that disappear without a trace unless someone downloads them, may resolve the drunken photo-share problem. Social media is worrisome because of the foreverness of it. Can something we did years ago, that everyone’s forgotten about because it isn’t a habitual activity, come back to haunt us?

Not only can we fear the past being exhumed, there’s little to protect us from the practice of tracing our day to day web browsing activity. On average, I go to 20 different sites in a day. What does my cumulative surfing activity tell a keen marketing algorithm? The practice of tracking user activities (searches and website visits) may provide smarter observations about our tendencies than we can come up with ourselves. Is this a valuable service or an annoyance of spam and suggestive selling?

Some fears are rooted in reality. Identity theft. Credit card fraud. Or being sold something you don’t need because you’re vulnerable, like forest fire damage insurance. Don’t you feel bad for people who make a silly mistake and get caught on social media, like calling in sick to work when they aren’t, or ruining a surprise proposal or party. We all have lapses in judgement occasionally.

Privacy is a fundamental right. If I don’t want you to know ‘that’, then it’s my right to keep ‘that’ private. But often, it isn’t on web forms. How many have you filled out where a phone number is a required field even though you can’t see the need for one, but can’t place your order without it? More annoying is the site that insists you create an account, or ‘sign up’, with the requisite disclosure of personal information. I say NO to those sites because I’m convinced they get more out of me becoming a member than I do.

Most of us know it’s possible to track websites visited and location through the GPS on mobile phone. However, in one study, while 90% of a group of experienced internet users say they know what a cookie is, only 15% can actually answer questions correctly that demonstrate they really know what cookies are1. We may be vaguely aware that online actions are traceable, don’t know what does it really means, or what could someone do with the information. Facebook reportedly2 looks into browser history to target ads to users. If an organization is profiting by selling information about me, without my knowledge, that does not sound right.

Back to the original question – how much harm can be done if a company knows I’ve researched hemorrhoids, looked up recipes for grasshoppers, visited six shoe shopping sites, and watched way too many cat videos? It might be embarrassing, but it won’t ruin my love life, empty my bank accounts, or set fire to my car. Still, I’m uneasy about what’s being done with my personal information, because I don’t know what’s being done with it. I’m not alone. This study3 suggests only 28% of people in a group of about 1500 agreed with the following statement: ‘what companies know about me from my behavior online cannot hurt’.

I don’t have the answer to ‘what do I fear will happen if my personal information is online’. I don’t need to. I wash my hands, without knowing if a bacteria, virus or fungus is lurking, waiting to infect me, or how serious an infection it might cause. Similarly, I’m concerned that something sick and disabling might be done with my online personal information, so I’m cautious of what I share.

1 from Luzak, J. (2014) Privacy Notice for Dummies? Towards European Guidelines on How to Give “Clear and Comprehensive Information” on the Cookies Use in Order to Protect the Internet Users’ Right to Online Privacy J Consum Policy 37:547-559

Please follow and like us:

So Close and Yet so Far: Contrast between Advanced Technology and Everyday Life.

In this era of lightening-fast technological advancement, new, astonishing developments emerge every day, like virtual reality goggles or driverless cars. With all of our awesome gadgets, apps and information, what has advanced technology done for us?

For the love of paradox, I catalogued a few instances of bleeding-edge technology and readily available solutions in similar areas. In no particular order:

Advanced Technology Current ‘State of the Art’

Medicine – Assistive Devices

Assistive and prosthetic devices that restore arm functionality by sensing the brain’s intention to move and moving the limb by brain command1. Stainless steel artificial hips to replace worn out joints and make recipients pain-free and able to carry out everyday activities like walking2 – certain models subject to recall3.
Google glass and other augmented reality visual aids. Meant to provide computing power through visual display and hand motions. Information about the visual field presented to the wearer, such as historical background, competitive pricing, communication history. (Privacy issues being worked out but the technology exists.) ‘Progressive lenses’. Corrective glasses allow distances, mid-range and close to be focused on, within a single lens. Works if you are vertical and the things you want to see close up are at chest height. Doesn’t work for close work above the head, like wiring a ceiling fixture or fixing the plumbing under the kitchen sink. Nor for reading while lying on your side.

Robots or other automation to do routine tasks.

Automation of jobs, such as taking your order at the fast food restaurant, sweeping the floor or delivering your take out order, through touch screens, robotic devices and drones. Youth unemployment. Many young people feel threatened by automation – that it will take away entry level jobs. There are many useful lessons people can learn working at a fast food restaurant or clothing store.
The super power of artificial intelligence has the capacity to control complex systems that include the power grid, water supply and energy production. Arguably will have the ability to dictate all human life support systems. (And lead to our control and possible demise.) Autocorrect is hysterical. Really – we fear the likes of this has the capability to rule the world? What is is a donkey ferris, anyway?

The Environment

Technology reduces an individual’s carbon footprint (electric cars, home lighting control, more efficient heating, more secure, faster electronic devices). Throw out the old version to become more environmentally efficient. Reduce, reuse, recycle. But the life cycle of many current consumer products has decreased, and most are unrepairable, unrefurbishable and apparently outdated. It’s cheaper and easier to buy the new. Into the landfill with the old!
Genetically engineered crops. Whatever you think about GMO’s, the purpose in their creation was to engineer plants that were more cost effective to grow, either due to insect, climate or pesticide resistance (allowing more efficient use of the land). Distrust of GMO’s. Concerns about toxins. Conspiracy theories about big business controlling the food supply. (The food supply is big business.)

Communication

Vast amounts of information is available to anyone with an internet connections. Misinformation about everything runs rampant. Massive amount of personal bandwidth is directed into subjects such as the black/blue vs gold/white dress question, cat videos, and conspiracy theories about big business.

Don’t get me wrong, I am glad of the technology we have access to. If I lived in primitive times, I’d been eaten by a bear or other hungry predator before I hit puberty because I can’t see well enough to avoid things more than two feet away. I’m privileged to have a longer lifespan than my ancestors, and that I don’t have to churn my own butter, make candles or go down to the river to do the laundry, where I’d likely be eaten by alligators I couldn’t see. And I have this platform to air my views and watch videos about plumbing repair, creativity, and cats.

The moral of this post is that the time from introduction of a novel technology to when we all can use it depends on:

  • the scientists and business people getting together to decide what the technology might be useful for,
  • the business people determining where the market is and how to communicate to people who might find the technology useful,
  • the engineers figuring out how to make mass quantities of the new thingie,
  • the business people getting it into stores or similar distribution points so that people can buy the new thingie.

This assumes that the business people made the price reasonable and the engineers and scientists got the thingie right so it does what it’s supposed to.

I didn’t mean to make this an infomercial for the commercialization process. Technology is advancing in quantum leaps and bounds, but it takes time to make it work consistently and safely. Maybe our children will put going into space on their bucket list, along with 3D printing their dream home.

1for example http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/21/technology/a-bionic-approach-to-prosthetics-controlled-by-thought.html?_r=0

2http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/hip_replacement/hip_replacement_ff.asp

3http://www.depuysynthes.com/asrrecall/asrcanadaenglish.html

Please follow and like us: